Hacking of hacker was used positively for many years to describe computer enthusiasts who had a passion for computer-related creativity. Since this required a lot of efficiencies and skill, the hackers through a positive understanding took pride in hacking when they wrote a computer program and found clever solutions to numerous problems. Eventually, the abilities to hack was a prestigious work and even today many computer enthusiasts still stick to this definition. However, the common understanding of the word “hacking” has already modified and changed to more negative and hazardous meaning.
In the contemporary period hacking refers to hackers who intrude into computers systems and use their computer application knowledge and skills for malicious and criminal intentions. On the other hand, the original and good hackers have adopted the word “cracker” to refer their positive work as well as to refer them.
Some of the most common types of hackings are breaking or intruding into a computer network, copy protection in computer in computer software or bypassing passwords, damaging internet websites and defacing, preventing users to access the website, stealing credit card data and other important information and passwords etc.
The experts have found six steps which are normally followed during the process of hacking. They are foot-printing, scanning, enumeration, advance, and covering tracks. The first skill or the technique used by hackers in the process of hacking is called footprinting. The footprinting is to gather information necessary for an attack which in turn enables the hacker to collect the complete details and profile of the security systems of the organisation which may further include the location, phone numbers, employees, security policies, target network of the company or organization. The hackers normally gather this information through a simple web browser or through telephone or search engine.
In the second step, the hackers carry out scanning to get details about the company’s network and vulnerabilities. The scanning is normally done in two ways, theping sweeps and the port scans.In the ping sweep technique, the hacker determines which individual computer is alive in the network and can be hacked. In the port scans, the hacker determines which port to is open and is there any vulnerability. In the third enumeration stage, the hacker identifies the user accounts and poorly protected resources.
In the fourth step of penetration, the hacker tries to get control over one or more systems of the network and in the fifth step of advance, the hacker leverages accounts which have been compromised during the penetration for further attacks. Finally, in the sixth step, the hacker eliminates any logs or records displaying malicious behaviour.